The excavation crew at the Callao Cave in the north of Luzon Island, in the Philippines, where an international multidisciplinary team discovered a new hominin species, Homo Luzonensis, on Aug. 9, 2011.Armand Salvadore Nujares / AFP - Getty Images file

Fossils of new human species discovered in Philippines cave

Fossilized bones and teeth suggest a long-lost cousin that scientists dubbed Homo luzonensis.

Fossil bones and teeth found in the Philippines have revealed a long-lost cousin of modern people, which evidently lived around the time our own species was spreading from Africa to occupy the rest of the world.

It’s yet another reminder that, although Homo sapiens are now the only surviving members of our branch of the evolutionary tree, we’ve had company for most of our existence.

And it makes our understanding of human evolution in Asia “messier, more complicated and whole lot more interesting,” says one expert, Matthew Tocheri of Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

In a study released Wednesday by the journal Nature, scientists describe the cache of seven teeth and six bones from the feet, hands and thigh of at least three members of the species. They were recovered from Callao Cave on the island of Luzon in the northern Philippines in 2007, 2011 and 2015. Tests on two samples show minimum ages of 50,000 years and 67,000 years.

Right upper teeth of an individual of the newly identified species Homo luzonensis, found in Callao Cave in the Philippines.Callao Cave Archaeology Project / Reuters

The main exodus of our own species from Africa that all of today’s non-African people are descended from took place around 60,000 years ago.

An analysis of the bones from Luzon led the study authors to conclude they belonged to a previously unknown member of our “Homo” branch of the family tree. One of the toe bones and the overall pattern of tooth shapes and sizes differ from what’s been seen before in the Homo family, the researchers said.

They dubbed the creature Homo luzonensis.

It apparently used stone tools and its small teeth suggest it might have been rather small-bodied, said one of the study authors, Florent Detroit of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris.

H. luzonensis lived in eastern Asia at around the same time as not only our species but also other members of the Homo branch, including Neanderthals, their little-understood Siberian cousins the Denisovans, and the diminutive “hobbits” of the island of Flores in Indonesia.

University of the Philippines (UP) Associate Professor Armand Salvador points to a projection of bones of a discovered new human species, the Homo luzonensis, at a press conference at the UP College of Science Auditorium in Manila on April 11, 2019. The human family tree has acquired a new branch with the unearthing of a previously unknown species of human. (Agence France Presse/Noel Celis)
Caption: Jakarta Post

There’s no sign that H. luzonensis encountered any other member of the Homo group, Detroit said in an email. Our species isn’t known to have reached the Philippines until thousands of years after the age of the bones, he said.

But some human relative was on Luzon more than 700,000 years ago, as indicated by the presence of stone tools and a butchered rhinoceros dating to that time, he said. It might have been the newfound species or an ancestor of it, he said in an email.

Article appeared on NBC News.